Modal or modal auxiliaries do not express tense or time, but they change the meaning of the base verb. The meaning changes according to the con**** of the sentence.
هي كلمات لا تغير الصيغة او الوقت بل المعنى للفعل الاساسي.
The modals are: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, have to, had better, ought
Modals, or modal auxiliaries, are helping verbs. Some quick rules about modals that you should follow.
هذه بعض القواعد العامة لاستعمال الـ Modals:
1. Modals are always accompanied by other verbs
Modals دائما تتبع بافعال اخرى
He may come late.
They should be here.
2. Modals are followed by the simple form of the verb.
Modals تتبع بالشكل البسيط للفعل اي أننا لا نقوم بأي تغييرات على الفعل كزيادة s - ing - ed الخ...
Tom will pass the test.
Something good might happen.
3. To form a negative sentence, place not after the modal
لاستعمال الـ Modals بالنفي كل ما علينا فعله هو اضافة كلمة not بعد الـ modal verb
Example: I could not lift the heavy box alone. I needed some help.
4. In a question, the modal appears before the subject
لاستعمال الـ Modals بصيغة الاستفهام كل ما علينا فعله هو وضع الـ modal verb في اول السؤال يليه الفاعل ثم الفعل الثاني
Example: May I leave early today?
Modals and Their Uses
gThe quality of being able to do somethin
a. Can expresses a present or future ability.
can تستعمل للحديث عن القدرات في الحاضر و المستقبل
· Meena can teach reading class.
· Hallry can speak Cambodian.
· Bob can go to work tomorrow.
b. Could expresses a past ability
could تستعمل للحديث عن القدرات في الماضي
· Harold could ride a unicycle when he was younger.
· Bob could play tennis well when he was a teenager.
· Jane could function with less sleep when she was a girl.
N.B. Be able to can also be used to express ability.
ملاحظة هامة: be able to قد تستعمل للدلالة على المقدرة
Be (am/is/are) +able to is used I the present or future.
· He isn’t able to stand on his hands.
Be (was/were) + able to is used in the past.
· He was able to use his left hand when his arm was broken.
Be able to is more commonly used with other modal auxiliaries.
غالبا ما تستعمل be able to مع الـ modals لاخرى
· Will Gregg be able to pass the test?
· We may be able to visit you next week.
You should be able to give us more time
the act of asking for something to be given or done, esp. as a favor
Use would, could, can or will to ask someone to do something
تستعمل would, could, can, will لطلب عمل ما من شخص آخر
· Can you switch on the light for me?
· Will you go to the shop for me?
· Would you do me a favour?
approval to do something
الاذن: طلب الاذن للقيام بعمل ما
Can, could and may are used to ask for permission.
· Can I have some candy?
· Could I switch on the light for me?
· May I use your phone?
There are many ways to answer permissions.
Could I sit here?
Yes, you can.
هذه بعض الأمثلة عن الطرق التي تستعمل لطلب الاذن
Certainly. / Sure. / Of course. / By all means. / No. Please, don't.
suggestions to a person about what he should do
a. Both should and ought to are used to give advice.
Ought to is not common in questions or in negative sentences.
Ought to لا تستعمل في النفي و السؤال
· I should study hard.
· I ought to study, too.
b. Had better is stronger than should or ought to. It is used for urgent advice.
Had better هي في المعنى اقوى من should or ought to و عادة يتضمن معناها التحذير
· You had (You'd) better take the early bus.
Had better refers to the present or the future but never to the past.
obligation / an unavoidable need or compulsion to do something
الضرورة في القيام بعمل ما (لا يوجد خيار في ذلك)
a. Must expresses an affirmative, strong necessity in the present or future. An obligation expressed by must have is imposed by the speaker or by the law.
تستعمل Must للحديث عن الضرورات المفروضة إما من القانون او من الشخص المتكلم على الشخص المستمع
· A soldier must obey army regulations. (The law says so.)
· You must follow traffic regulations. (The law says so.)
b. Have to expresses an affirmative, strong necessity in the present or future. An obligation expressed by have to is imposed by external circumstances.
تستعمل Have to للحديث عن الضرورات المفروضة من قبل اشخاص او ظروف أخرى غير القانون و المتكلم
· Mother says that you have to be home before sunset. (Mother says so.)
· You have to have a driver’s license.
6. Prohibition - المنع
Must not (mustn't) is used to express prohibition.
"Must not" means that you have no choice. You are not supposed to do something.
تستعمل Must not للحديث عن المنع او الضرورة بعدم القيام بعمل ما. و هي لا تتضمن اية اختيارات
· You must not smoke at the gas station.
· You must not stay in the room during a fire drill.
7. Lack of necessity - عدم الضرورة
"Do not have to" is a modal of lack of necessity.
“Do not have to” means that you have a choice. You can do something if you want to do it.
تستعمل Do not have to للكلام عن عدم ضورة القيام بالشيء
أي ان الشخص لديه القدرة على الاختيار اما للقيام بالعمل او لا
· You do not have to do the extra credit.
· You do not have to eat in the cafeteria.
capability of existing or happening or being true
a. Could, may and might are words that are used to express possible future actions. They mean that the speaker thinks the action is possible, but he or she is not completely certain about it.
تستعمل Could, may and might للحديث عن امكانية حصول الفعل في المستقبل و لكن الشخص عادة لا يكون واثقا تمام الثقة من ان الامر سيحدث.
· They are sick. This means that the speaker is sure that "they" are sick.
· They could be sick. This means that the speaker isn't positive that "they" could be sick.
· They might be sick. Again, this means that the speaker isn't positive that "they" are sick.
· They may be sick. This means the same as above. The speaker isn't positive that "they" are sick.
b. Use may not or might not to talk about the possibility that something will not happen.
تستعمل , may not and might not للحديث عن صعوبة حصول الفعل في المستقبل
· Alexa looks tired. She might not continue the competition.
· Alexa looks tired. She may not pass her final exam.
a. Could not is used to express strong impossibility.
تستعمل Could not للحديث عن عدم امكانية حصول الشيء في المستقبل. و هي في المعنى اقوى من may not and might not
· He could not have a driving test. He is not eighteen yet.
b. In question forms, use Do you think … or Is it possible … to ask about possibility.
· Do you think it may rain tomorrow?
· Is it possible that he might leave town?
9. Assumption / logical conclusion
a statement that is assumed to be true and from which a conclusion can be drawn
الافتراضية او التحليل المنطقي
a. Use must or have to to show that we are almost sure that an action is probable to happen.
تستعمل must للدلالة على اننا متأكدين الى حد كبير بأن هذا الامر سيحدث
· Mr. Wilson is the only employee at this shop. It must be a small shop.
· John keeps eating day and night. He has to be overweight.
b. To express negative assumption, use must not.
· These three children must not be all his. He has only two children.
10. Suggestion الاقتراح
shall is used to express suggestions
Shall I carry your bag?
Shall I show you the sitting room?
11. Promise - الوعد
will is used to talk about future promises
I will give you a nice gift
I promise that i will love you forever
12. Predicition - التوقع
will is used to talk about future predicitions
I think it will rain tomorrow
Maybe he will go to France next week
13. Spontaneous Decision
Will is used to talk about sudden decisions at the time of speaking
The bus is late: I will go by car
The bell is ringing: I will open the door
تمرين بسيط على استعمال بعض الـ Modals
Exercise 1: Choose the correct modal verb to fit in the following ****.
Hi there! 1. (May/Would) I tell you something? Everybody 2. (should/may) respect his or her parents. One day, I had a fight with mine because I didn’t listen to them. I thought they were old-fashioned. Then, I learned that a person 3. (must/will) listen to people who know about things he or she is not familiar with. Actually, a person 4. (would/must) learn to listen more to people from other generations. They 5. (must/can) teach so much about life. I have come to understand that it’s important that people be able to change their opinion about certain matters. I know I have! And I wrote my parents a little note, hoping they 6. (would/must) forgive me.
Exercise 2: Choose the correct modal verb
___ you speak any foreign languages?
Liz ___ get tired of her job. It is so boring.
a. has to
Where's Nick? He ___ be in his office.
c. is to
Take an umbrella. It ___ rain later.
a. has to
Jack ___ go to hospital yesterday.
b. had to
You look tired. You ___ go to bed.
c. are to
You ___ do it. I've already done it.
a. must not
b. need not
c. ought not
___ it be true?
___ we stay or leave?
Jane was so tired. She ___ have worked days and nights.